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Culture and Dental Care

Selected and compiled by Jacquelyn Coughlan, M.S., M.L.S.

Adair, P. M., Pine, C. M., Burnside, G., Nicoll, A. D., Gillett, A., Anwar, S., et al. (2004). Familial and cultural perceptions and beliefs of oral hygiene and dietary practices among ethnically and socio-economically diverse groups. Community Dental Health, 21, 102-111.

Allison, P., Locker, D., et al. (1999, February). A cross-cultural study of oral health values. Journal of Dental Research, 78(2), 643-649.

Anees, K., & Bedi, R. (2000). Dental medication for Muslim patients. Dental Update, 27, 449-452.

Astrohm, A. N., Jackson, W. & Mwangosi, I. E. A. T. (2000). Knowledge, belief and behavior related to oral health among Tanzanian & Ugandan teacher trainees. ACTA Odontologica Scandinavica, 58(1), 11-18.

Astroth, J., Berg, R., et al. (1998). Dental care prevalence and treatment need in Chiriqui Province, Panama. International Dental Journal, 48(3), 203-209.

Atchison, K. A., & Dubin, L. F. (2003, January). Understanding health behavior and perceptions. Dental Clinics of North America, 47(1), 21-39.

Baba, S. P., & Kay, E. J. (1989). The mythology of the killer deciduous canine tooth in southern Sudan. The Journal of Pedodontics, 14(1), 48-49.

Bagramian, R. A., Narendran, S., & Khavari, A. M. (1988). Oral health status, knowledge, and practices in an Amish population. Journal of Public Health Dentistry, 48, 147-151.

Barker, T. (1994). Role of health beliefs in patient compliance with preventive dental advice. Community Dentistry and Oral Epidemiology, 22, 327-330.

Barlow, B. S., Kanellis, M. J., & Slayton, R. L. (2002, May-August). Tooth eruption symptoms: A survey of parents and health professionals. ASDC Journal of Dentistry for Children, 69(2), 148-50.

Barmes, D. E. (1976, September). Features of oral health care across cultures. International Dental Journal, 26(3), 353-368.

Beal, J. F., & Dickson, S. (1975). Differences in dental attitudes and behaviour between West Midland mothers of various ethnic origins. Public Health, 89(2), 65-70.

Bedi, R. (1987). Dental health education and ethnicity. British Dental Journal, 163, 332.

Bedi, R. (1989). Ethnic indicators of dental health for young Asian schoolchildren resident in areas of multiple deprivation. British Dental Journal, 166(9), 331-334.

Bedi, R., & Gilthorpe, M. S. (1995). The potential use of ethnic mass media in health education--a case study of the Bangladeshi community. Journal of the Institute of Health Education, 33, 42-52.

Bedi, R., & Uppal, R. D. K. (1995). The oral health of minority ethnic communities in the United Kingdom. British Dental Journal, 179, 421-425.

Beecher, D. M., Hartman, K. S., et al. (1985). Betel nut chewing in the United States: An old habit in a new country. Journal of the Indiana Dental Association, 64, 42-44.

Borokowska, E. D., Watts, T. L. P., & Weinman, J. (1998). The relationship of health beliefs and psychological mood to the patient adherent to oral hygiene behaviour. Journal of Clinical Periodontology, 25(3), 187.

Brow, J. A. (2002). When culture and medicine collide. Dental Assisting, 71, 26-36.

Cao, J., Bai, X., et al. (1996, December). The relationship of fluorosis and brick tea drinking in Chinese Tibetans. Environmental Health Perspectives, 104(12), 1340-1343.

Chapman, C. R., Sato, T., et al. (1982, April). Comparative effects of acupuncture in Japan and the United States on dental pain perception. Pain, 12(4), 319-328.

Chen, M. S. (2002). Oral health status and its inequality among education groups: Comparing seven international study sites. International Journal of Health Services: Planning, Administration, Evaluation, 32(1), 139-61.

Chin, E. (1996, February). Multicultural initiatives: One school's attempt to understand its students. Dentistry, 16(1), 20, 24-25.

Chrisman, N. L. (1989, February). Dental difficulties: Americans' explanations of periodontal disease. Anthropology Today, 5(1), 14-16.

Clark, J., & Morton, J. (1977). Behavioral assessment: An appraisal of beliefs and behaviors relating to treatment. Dental Clinics of North America, 21(3), 515-530.

Connolly, I. M., Darby, M. L., et al. (2000, Spring). The cultural adaptability of health sciences faculty. Journal of Dental Hygiene, 74(2), 102-109.

Corbet, E. (1999). Oriental and occidental cultural differences--their possible influences on global dental education and learning. European Journal of Dental Education, 3(Suppl. 1), 39-43.

Corrigan, M., Newton, J. T., et al. (2001). The mouth-body split: Conceptual models of oral health and their relationship to general health among ethnic minorities in South Thames Health Region. Community Dental Health, 18, 42-46.

Cote, S., Geltman, P., Nunn, M., Lituri, K., Henshaw, M., & Garcia, R. I. (2004). Dental caries of refugee children compared with US children. Pediatrics, 114(6): e733-40.

Cruz, G. D., Galvis, D. L., et al. (2001, April). Self-perceived oral health among three subgroups of Asian-Americans in New York City: A preliminary study. Community Dentistry and Oral Epidemiology, 29(2), 99-106.

Darout, I. A., Albandar, J. M., & Skaug, N. (2000). Periodontal status of adult Sudanese habitual users of miswak chewing sticks or toothbrushes. Acta Odontologica Scandinavica, 58(1), 25-30.

Davidhizar, R., & Giger, J. (1997, January). Transcultural patient assessment: A method of advancing dental care. Dental Assistant, 67(6), 34-5, 40-43.

Davidson, L. E., & Rodd, H. D. (2001). Interrelationship between dental age and chronological age in Somali. Community Dental Health, 18, 27-30.

Davidson, P. L., Rams, T. E., & Andersen, R. M. (1997). Socio-behavioral determinants of oral hygiene practices among USA ethnic and age groups. Advances in Dental Research, 11, 245-253.

Dental ResourceNet. Patient Education Materials in 17 languages. Retrieved December 16, 2004 from

Dhawan, N., & Bedi, R. (2001). Transcultural oral health care: 6. The oral health of minority ethnic groups in the United Kingdom--A review. Dental Update, 28, 30-34.

Donate-Bartfield, E., & Lausten, L. (2002). Why practice culturally sensitive care? Integrating ethics and behavioral science. Journal of Dental Education, 66, 1006-1011.

Durward, C., Todd, R., et al. (1994, June). A survey of the training, practice and dental health knowledge of traditional dentists practising in Phnom Penh, Cambodia. Community Dental Health, 11(2), 111-113.

Durward, C. S., & Wright, F. A. (1989). Dental knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors of Indochinese and Australian-born adolescents. Community Dentistry and Oral Epidemiology, 17, 14-18.

Einterz, E. M., Einterz, R. M., & Bate, M. E. (1994). Traditional uvelectomy in nothern Cameroon [20]. Lancet, 343(8913), 1644.

Esa, R., Razak, I. A. & Jalalludin, R. L. (1992). Cross-cultural variations in dental knowledge among antenatal mothers. Odonto-stomatologie tropicale, 15(1), 19-23.

Evans, R. W., Bedi, R., et al. (1985, October). The oral health status and treatment needs of Vietnamese refugee children in transit in Hong Kong. New Zealand Dental Journal, 81(366), 116-120.

Ferber, I., & Bedrick, A. E. (1979, March). Dental survey of 620 Soviet immigrants. Journal of the American Dental Association, 98(3), 379-383.

Fitch, P. (2004). Cultural competence and dental hygiene care delivery: Integrating cultural care into the dental hygiene process of care. Journal of Dental Hygiene, 78(1), 11-21.

Formicola, A. J., Stavisky, J., & Lewy, R. (2003). Cultural competency: Dentistry and medicine learning from one another. Journal of Dental Education, 68, 553-562.

Gamboa, V. T. (1984, December). Oral health status and traditions in the Philippines. International Dental Journal, 34(4), 257-260.

Graham, E. A., Domoto, P. K., et al. (2000, August). Dental injuries due to African traditional therapies for diarrhea. Western Journal of Medicine, 173(2), 135-137.

Gray, A. S., & Gunther, D. M. (1986, April). Individual beliefs and expectations in dental healthe practises. Journal of Canadian Dental Association, 52(4), 277-279.

Harris, S. T., & Allan, R. E. (1993, September 11). The crisis in Bosnia: Breaking down barriers. British Dental Journal, 175(5), 180-182.

Harrison, R., Wong, T., Ewan, C., et al. (1997). Feeding practices and dental caries in an urban Canadian population of Vietnamese school children. ADSC Journal of Dentistry for Children, 64, 112-117.

Hassanali, J., Amwayl, P., & Murlithl, A. (1995). Removal of decidious canine tooth buds in Kenyan rural Maasai. East African Medical Journal, 72(4), 207-209.

Hebbar, S. S., Harsha, V. H., Shripathi, V., & Hegde, G. R. (2004). Ethnomedicine of Dharwad district in Karnataka, India--plants used in oral health care. Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 94, 261-266.

Hiza, J. F., & Kikwilu, E. N. (1992). Missing primary teeth due to tooth bud extraction in a remote village in Tanzania. Interntional Journal or Paediatric Dentistry, 2(1), 31-34.

Holan, G., & Mamber, E. (1994, March). Extraction of primary canine tooth buds: Prevalence and associated dental abnormalities in a group of Ethiopian Jewish children. International Journal of Paediatric Dentistry, 4(1), 25-30.

Ijaduola, G. T. A. (1981). Uvelectomy in Nigeria. Journal of Laryngology and Otology, 95(111), 1127-1133.

Jacobsen, P. L., Fredekind, R., et al. (2000, July). An updated multiple language health history for dental practice. Journal of the California Dental Association, 28(7), 492-509.

Johnston, N. L., & Riordan, P. J. (2005). Tooth follicle extirpation and uvulectomy. Australian Dental Journal, 50(4), 267-272.

Kalkwarf, K. L. (1995). Creating multicultural dental schools and the responsibility of leadership. Journal of Dental Education, 59(12), 1107-1110.

Kanner, L. (1928). Folklore of the teeth. New York: Macmillan.

Kassu, A., Dagne, E., et al. (1999, November). Ethnomedical aspects of the commonly used toothbrush sticks in Ethiopia. The East African Medical Journal, 76(11), 651-653.

Kawamura, M., Honkala, E., Widstrom, E., et al. (2000). Cross-cultural differences of self-reported oral health behaviour in Japanese and Finnish dental students. International Dental Journal, 50, 46-50.

Kawamura, M., Iwamoto, Y., & Wright, F. A. (1997). A comparison of self-reported dental health attitudes and behavior between selected Japanese and Australian students. Journal of Dental Education, 61, 354-360.

Kawamura, M., Spadafora, A., Kim, K. J., et al. (2002). Comparison of United States and Korean dental hygiene students using the Hiroshima university-dental behavioral inventory (HU-DBI). Association Dentaire Mondiale International Dental Federation, 52(3), 156-162.

Kawamura, M., Wright, F. A., Declerck, D., et al. (2005). An exploratory study on cultural variations in oral health attitudes, behaviour and values of freshmen (first-year) dental students. International Dental Journal, 55, 205-211.

Kawamura, M., Yip, H. K., Hu, D. Y., & Komabayaski, T. (2001). A cross-cultural comparison of dental health attitudes and behaviour among freshman dental students in Japan, Hong Kong and West China. International Dental Journal, 51(3), 159-163.

Kay, E. J., Shaikh, I., & Bhopal, R. S. (1990). Dental knowledge, beliefs, attitudes and behaviour of the Asian community in Glasgow. Health Bulletin, 48(2), 73-80.

Khan, F. A., & Williams, S. A. (1999). Cultural barriers to successful communication during orthodontic care. Community Dental Health, 16, 256-261.

Kikwilu, E. N., & Hiza, J. F. R. (1997). Tooth bud extraction and rubbing of herbs by traditional healers in Tanzania: Prevalence, and sociological and environmental factors influencing the practices. International Journal of Paediatric Dentistry, 7(1), 19-24.

Kiyak, H. A. (1981, October). Comparison of esthetic values among Caucasians and Pacific-Asians. Community Dentistry and Oral Epidemiology, 9(5), 219-223.

Kiyak, H. A. (1993, February). Age and culture: Influences on oral health behavior. International Dental Journal, 43(1), 9-16.

Korovelkova, V., & Zayan, M. H. (1997, Fall). Dental hygienic care in the Commonwealth of Independent States. Journal of Dental Hygiene, 71(5), 195-201.

Kwan, S., & Holmes, M. (1999). An exploration of oral health beliefs and attitudes of Chinese in West Yorkshire, a qualitative investigation. Health Education Research, 14(4), 443.

Kwan, S. Y. (2000). Transcultural oral health care: 2. Developing transcultural oral health promotional materials. Dental Update, 27, 346-348.

Kwan, S. Y., & Bedi, R. (2000, July/August). Transcultural oral health and the Chinese--an invisible community. Dental Update, 27(6), 296-299.

Kwan, S. Y., & Williams, S. A. (1998). Attitudes of Chinese people toward obtaining dental care in the U.K. British Dental Journal, 185, 188-191.

Kwan, S. Y. L., & Williams, S. A. (1999). Dental beliefs, knowledge and behavior of Chinese people in the United Kingdom. Community Dental Health, 16, 33-39.

Lawrence, H. P. (2001). Cross-cultural perceptions of oral health and oral-health-related quality of life. Community Dental Health, 18(4), 207-208.

Lee, J., & Kiyak, H. A. (1992, Spring). Oral disease beliefs, behaviors, and health status of Korean-Americans. Journal of Public Health Dentistry, 52(3), 131-136.

Lee, K. L., Schwarz, E., & Mak, K. Y. (1993, February). Improving oral health through understanding the meaning of health and disease in a Chinese culture. International Dental Journal, 43(1), 2-8.

Lemay, W. R., et al. (1998). Early childhood carries experience in a Hmong population. Journal of Dental Research, 77, 614.

Lew, K. K. (1993, February). Attitudes and perceptions of adults towards orthodontic treatment in an Asian community. Community Dentistry and Oral Epidemiology, 21(1), 31-35.

Loewen, S. L. (1984). Medical and dental services in early Mennonite communities. Journal of American Historical Society of Germans from Russia, 7(3), 15-20.

Lukes, S. M., & Miller, F. Y. (2002, Spring). Oral health issues among migrant farmworkers. Journal of Dental Hygiene, 76, 134-140.

Magee, K. W., Darby, M. L., Connolly, I. M., & Thomson, E. (2004). Cultural adaptability of dental hygiene students in the United States: A pilot study. Journal of Dental Hygiene, 78(1), 22-29.

Mani, N. J. (1985, February). Gingival tattoo. A hitherto undescribed mucosal pigmentation. Quintessence International, 16(2), 157-159.

Manni, J. J. (1984). Uvelectomy, a traditional surgical procedure in Tanzania. Annals of Tropical Medicine and Parasitology, 78(1), 49-53.

Mesa, M. L., Clark, M., Austin, G., et al. (1981). Ethnic and cultural determinants of the perceptions of female dental students. Journal of Dental Education, 45(9), 576-580.

Milgrom, P., Kleinknecht, R. A., et al. (1990). A cross-cultural cross validation of the Dental Fear Survey in Southeast Asia. Behavior Research & Therapy, 28(3), 227-233.

Mogensen, H. O. (2000, September). False teeth and real suffering: The social course of 'Germectomy' in Eastern Uganda. Culture, Medicine and Psychiatry, 24(3), 331-351.

Moore, R., Brødsgaard, I ., et al. (1998, Winter). Acute pain and use of local anesthesia: Tooth drilling and childbirth labor pain beliefs among Anglo-Americans, Chinese, and Scandinavians. Anesthesia Progress, 45(1), 29-37.

Moore, R., Brødsgaard, I., et al. (1998, Winter). Perceived need for local anesthesia in tooth drilling among Anglo-Americans, Chinese, and Scandinavians. Anesthesia Progress, 45(1), 22-28.

Morey, D. P., & Leung, J. J. (1993, May-June). The multicultural knowledge of registered dental hygienists: A pilot study. Journal of Dental Hygiene, 67(4), 180-185.

Mouradian, W. E. (2004). Addressing health disparities through dental-medical collaborations, Part III: Leadership for the public good. Journal of Dental Education, 68(5), 505-512.

Nakazono, T. T., Davidson, P. L., & Andersen, R. M. (1997). Oral health beliefs in diverse populations. Advances in Dental Research, 11(2), 235.

Nelson, L. P. (2003, January-February). Assess ABCD to ascertain the level of cultural influence in pediatric dental families. Pediatric Dentistry, 25(1), 26-8.

Newton, J. T., Corrigan, M., Gibbons, D. E., & Locker, D. (2003, June). The self-assesses oral health status of individuals from White, Indian, Chinese and Black Caribbean communitites in South-east England. Community Dentistry and Oral Epidemiology, 31(3), 192-199.

Ng, M. W. (2003, January-February). Multicultural influences on child-rearing practices: Implications for today's pediatric dentist. Pediatric Dentistry, 25(1), 19-22.

Novak, K. F., Whitehead, A. W., Close, J. M., & Kaplan, A. L. (2004). Journal of Dental Education, 68(3), 355-360.

Ogunbodede, E. (1991). Dental care: The role of traditional healers. World Health Forum, 12, 443- 444.

Okunseri, C., Self, K., Born, D. O., & Pineda, M. (2003, July-August). Dental care accces for Hispanics in Minnesota: A culturally sensitive medical and dental model. Northwest Dentistry, 82(4), 41-44.

Omar, R., Tashkandi, E., Abdulijabber, T., Abdullah, M. A., & Akeel, R. F. (2003, September-October). Sentiments expressed in relation to tooth loss: A qualitative study among edentulous Saudis. Prosthodontics, 16(5), 515-520.

Otuyemi, O. D., Ogunyinka, A., Dosumu, O., Cons, N. C., Jenny, J., et al. (1998). Perceptions of dental aesthetics in the United States and Nigeria. Community Dentistry and Oral Epidemiology, 26(6), 418-420.

Pau, A. K. & Croucher, R. (1997). Oral health knowledge, beliefs and practices of a sample of Chinese elders in inner London, UK, aged 54 years and over: A pilot investigation. Gerondontology, 14(2), 106-112.

Payne, B. J., & Locker, D. (1994). Preventive oral health behaviors in a multi-cultural population: the North York Oral Health Promotion Survey. Journal/Canadian Dental Association, 60(2), 129-30.

Peretz, B. (2000). Dental health behavior of children with BBTD treated using general anesthesia or sedation, and of their parents in recall examination. ASDC--Journal of Dentistry for Children, 67(1), 50-54.

Petersen, P. E., Hoerup, N., Poomviset, N., et al. (2001). Oral health status and oral health behaviour of urban and rural schoolchildren in Southern Thailand. International Dental Journal, 51, 95-102.

Pickwell, S. M., Schimelpfening, S., & Palinkas, L. A. (1994, April). 'Betelmania' . Betel quid chewing by Cambodian women in the United States and its potential health effects. The Western Journal of Medicine, 160(4), 326-330.

Pindborg, J. J. (1969). Dental mutilation and associated abnormalities in Uganda. American Journal of Physical Anthropology, 31(3), 383-389.

Pollick, H. F., Rice, A. J., et al. (1987, June). Dental health of recent immigrant children in the newcomer schools, San Francisco. American Journal of Public Health, 77(6), 731-732.

Prabhu, N. T., Warnakulasuriya, K., Gelbier, S., & Robinson, P. G. (2001). Betel quid chewing among Bangladeshi adolescents living in east London. International Journal of Paediatric Dentistry, 11(1), 18-24.

Prual, A., Gamatie, Y., Djakounda, M., & Huguet, D. (1994). Traditional uvelectomy in Niger: A public health problem? Social Science and Medicine, 39(8), 1077-1082.

Raja, A., Anees, K., & Bedi, R. (2000). Dental care and treatment during the Fast of Ramadan. Dental Update, 27, 392-394.

Randolph, P. M., Beck, D. J., et al. (1987, June). Dental health education in a refugee camp: An undergraduate student exercise. Community Dental Health, 4(2), 177-181.

Razak, I. A., & Ali, M. M. (1989). Unperceived dental needs in a group of Malaysian elderly patients. Annals: Academy of Medicine Singapore, 18(5), 516-518.

Reisine, S., & Litt, M. (1993). Social and psychological theories and their use for dental practice. International Dental Journal, 43, 279-287.

Rodd, H. D., Davidson, L. E., Bateman, P. M., & Lunn, H. D. (2002, December). Caries experience and dental attendance of Somali children living in a British city. European Journal of Paediatric Dentistry, 3(4), 210-216.

Rubin, R. W. (2004). Developing cultural competence and social responsibility in preclinical dental students. Journal of Dental Education, 68(4), 460-467.

Sarnat, H., Cohen, S., et al. (1987, October). Changing patterns of dental caries in Ethiopian adolescents who immigrated to Israel. Community Dentistry and Oral Epidemiology, 15(5), 286-288.

Scheutz, F., Heidmann, J., et al. (1983, August). Dental health of Vietnamese boat people on Pulau Bidong, Malaysia. Community Dentistry and Oral Epidemiology, 11(4), 255-258.

Schwarz, E., & Birn, H. (1995, July). Dental anxiety in Danish and Chinese adults--a cross-cultural perspective. Social Science and Medicine, 41(1), 123-130.

Selihowitz, H. S. (1987). The relationship between periodontal conditions and perceptions of periodontal health among Pakistani immigrants in Norway. Journal of Clinical Periodontology, 14, 340-344.

Selikowitz, H. S. (1994). Acknowledging cultural differences in the care of refugees and immigrants. International Dental Journal, 44, 59-61.

Sisty-LePeau, N. (1993, May-June). Oral healthcare and cultural barriers. Journal of Dental Hygiene, 67(4), 156.

Slaughter, A., Smith, V. J., & Taylor, L. (2004). Progressing toward a more culturally competent approach to dental care for African American elders. Special Care in Dentistry, 24, 301-307.

Smith, D. K., & Szuster, F. (2000, December). Aspects of tooth decay in recently arrived refugees. Australian and New Zealand Journal of Public Health, 24(6), 623-626.

Sote, E. O. (1987, October). The relative effectiveness of chewing sticks and toothbrush on plaque removal. African Dental Journal, 1(2), 48-53.

Sprague, P. S., Winslow, G. R. (2002, January-February). Dental ethics cultural expectations and dental care. General Dentistry, 50(1), 26-28.

Stewart, T. D., & Groome, J. R. (1968). The African custom of tooth mutilation in America. American Journal of Physical Anthropology, 28(1), 31-42.

Strauss, R. P. (1996, December). Culture, dental professionals and oral health values in multicultural societies: Measuring cultural factors in geriatric oral health research and education. Gerodontology, 13(2), 82-89.

Tandrup, F., & Scheutz, F. (1986, August). Dental experience and behavior in three Indochinese refugee populations. Tandlaegebladet, 90(11), 485-489.

Tewari, A., Gauba, K., & Goyal, A. (1991). Evaluation of existing status of knowledge, practice and attitude towards oral health of rural communities of Haryana--India. Journal of the Indian Society of Pedodontics and Preventive Dentistry, 9(1), 21-30.

Tsurumoto, A., Wright, F. A., Kitamura, T., Fukushima, M., Campain, A. C., & Morgan, M. V. (1998). Cross-cultural comparison of attitudes and opinions on fluorides and fluoridation between Australia and Japan. Community Dentistry and Oral Epidemiology, 26, 182-193.

van Reenen, J. F., & Briedenhann, S. J. (1986, August ). Further observations on the tooth mutilating practices of Vassekela and !Kung Bushmen. Journal of the Dental Association of South Africa, 41(8), 557-62.

Vazquez, L., & Swan, J. H. (2003, Spring). Access and attitudes toward oral health care among Hispanic in Wichita, Kansas. Journal of Dental Hygiene, 77(2), 85-96.

Visavadia, B. G., & Kumar, M. (1991). A study of the attitudes to oral health and prevalence of dental disease in primary school children in Delhi. Dental Update, 18(8), 351-352.

Waldman, H. B. (1995). Immigrant children and pediatric dental practice. ASDC Journal of Dentistry for Children. 78, 167-177.

Welbury, R. R., Nunn J. H., Gordon, P. H., & Green-Abate, C. (1993). "Killer" canine removal and it's sequelae in Addis Ababa. Quintessence International, 24(5), 323-327.

Williams, S., & Infirri, J. S. (1996). Refugees, migrants, and oral health. Migration World Magazine, 24(5), 31-32.

Williams, S., & Sahota, P. (1990). An enquiry into the attitudes of Muslim Asian mothers regarding infant feeding practices and dental health. Journal of Human Nutrition and Dietetics, 3, 393-401.

Williams, S. A., Ahmed, I. A., et al. (1991, May). Ethnicity, health and dental care--perspectives among British Asians: 1. Dental Update, 18(4), 154-161.

Williams, S. A., Ahmed, I. A., et al. (1991, June). Ethnicity, health and dental care--perspectives among British Asians: 2. Dental Update, 18(5), 205-207.

Wright, F. A. (1984, March). A cross cultural comparison of children's illness and dental illness concepts. Hygie, 3(1), 25-30.

Wright, F. A. (1997). A comparison of self-reported dental health attitudes and behavior between selected Japanese and Australian students. Journal of Dental Education, 61(4), 354-360.

Zimmerman, M., Bornstein, R., et al. (1988, February). Dental health status in two groups of refugees in Sweden. Acta Odontologica Scandinavica, 46(1), 19-23.

Zimmerman, M., Bornstein, R., et al. (1993). Attitudes and knowledge about preventive dental care in Chilean refugees in Sweden. Community Dental Health, 10(4), 343-351.





©Jacquelyn Coughlan, April 2006 (129 citations)